ÇOCUK VE HARÇLIK

Harçlık çocuğun sorumluluk duygusunun gelişmesi için önemli bir araçtır. Anne babalar çocuklarına harçlık verirken; çocukların bireyselliklerini destekledikleri gibi yetişkinlik dönemlerindeki para ile ilişkilerinin de temelini oluştururlar. Çocuğa harçlık verme ve verilen parayı iyi kullanabilmesinin sağlanması eğitimin bir parçasıdır.

Çocuğa kaç yaşından itibaren harçlık verilmeli?
Çocuğa harçlık verilmesine 6-7 yaşlarında başlanmalıdır. Çocuğun yaşı büyüdükçe parayı kontrol etme, hesabını iyi yapma ve bütçesine göre harcama planını yapma konusundaki becerileri gelişecektir. Bu durum dikkate alınarak, lise öğrencisine aylık harçlık verilerek para kullanma becerisinin daha da gelişmesi sağlanabilir. Ancak parasını harcadığı yerler yine iyi izlenmeli ve çok hissettirmeden denetimi yapılmalıdır.

Çocuğa nasıl harçlık verilmeli?
Harçlık, günlük veya haftalık verilebilir. Harçlığın belli bir düzen içinde çocuğa verilmesi en uygun ve tutarlı yoldur. Çocuk, harçlığını biriktirerek bir eksiğini karşılamaya veya çok istediği bir malzeme ya da oyuncağı almaya teşvik edilmelidir. İlgi ve merakı doğrultusunda doğru ve yararlı şeylere para harcaması, ihtiyacı doğrultusunda alışveriş yapması için rehberlik edilmelidir.
Çocuğa harçlık verilirken “ben eskiden çok çektim, çocuğum çekmesin” anlayışı yanlıştır. Harçlık ne çok fazla ne de çok az verilmelidir. Abartılı harçlık doyumsuzluğa, kısıtlı harçlık ise “değersiz olduğunu düşünme” ve sonucunda saldırganlık ve itaatsizlik duygularına dönüşebilir. Anne ve baba, iyi bir rehberlik yapabilirse, bazı hedefler koyarak çocuğunun parayı ihtiyacı kadar harcayıp geri kalanını biriktirmesine, sabır ve parayı daha etkin kullanabilme kabiliyetlerinin gelişmesine yardımcı olabilir.

Harçlığın faydaları:
Düzenli ve disiplinli bir şekilde verilen harçlık çocuğun sorumluluk ve sahiplenme duygusunu geliştirir. Anlık ve geçici isteklerini erteleyebilme ve ihtiyaçlarını öncelik sırasına koyma becerisi kazandırır. Özellikle de tasarruflu olmayı elde ettiklerinin değerini bilmeyi öğretir.
Sonuç olarak, çocuğun yaşına ve sınıfına uygun olarak, ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak ve bir kısmını da biriktirebilmesini sağlamak üzere yeterli miktarda ve düzenli bir harçlık vermek en sağlıklı yoldur. Çocuğun talebine göre verilecek harçlık miktarında sık değişiklik yapmak uygun bir yaklaşım değildir. Çocuğun sahip olduğunun değerini bilmesi ve bütçesini ihtiyacına göre doğru planlamayı öğrenebilmesi için önemli bir neden olmadıkça verilecek miktar önceden belirlenen süre içerisinde sabit tutulmadır. Çocuk ne kadar süre içinde elinde ne kadar parası olacağını bilmeli ve harcamalarını buna göre planlamalı, aldığı harçlığı biriktirme ya da harcama kararını kendisi vermelidir. Bu onun yetişkin yaşlarda parasını iyi kullanması için bir deneyim ve hazırlık süreci olacaktır.

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