ÇOCUK VE CEZA

Çocukları eğitmede kullanılan yöntemlerden bir diğeri de cezadır. Eğitimde ödüllendirmek kadar cezanın da etkili olduğu açıktır. Ancak uygulanacak ceza çocuğa insanlar arası ilişkileri anlatacak türden olmalı, bedensel cezaya hiçbir biçimde başvurulmamalıdır. Özellikle dayağa başvurmak çok tehlikelidir. Çocuk dövüldüğünde bedensel izi çabucak kaybolur. Fakat bedensel cezanın oluşturduğu duygusal yaranın onarımı çok güçtür. Çünkü dayak, öğretici değeri az, etkisi kısa süren bir yıldırma yöntemidir. Mesela, anne-babanın dayak atmasıyla davranışlarını düzelten bir çocuk, anne-babanın gördüğü yerlerde düzgün davranacak, görmediği yerlerde yine yanlışlara devam edecektir. İstenilen bir davranışta bulunmayan çocuğun bazı isteklerden yoksun bırakılması, örneğin beklediği armağanın verilmeyişi, bir gezi programının ertelenmesi, sokağa çıkma yasağı, televizyon izleme yasağı gibi. Çocuklar için gerçekten önem taşıyan durumları ceza aracı olarak kullanmak iyi olur. Eğitimde önemli olan çocuğa istek kazandırarak doğru davranışlar kazandırmaktır.

Cezada kullanılacak diğer bir yöntem, çocuğa yaptığını düzelttirme yöntemidir. Kırdığı eşyayı harçlığıyla alması gibi. Fakat ceza tutarlı olmalı. Aynı davranış, bir gün ceza, bir başka gün hoşgörü ile karşılanmamalıdır. Çocuktan anında boyun eğme, buyruğu yerine getirme beklenmemelidir. Örneğin: Okuldan çıkan çocuk aynı saatte eve gelmedi diye cezalanmaz, ceza vermeden önce çocuğu dinlemeliyiz. Çocuk, duygu, düşünce ve isteklerinden dolayı değil, davranışından dolayı cezalanmalıdır. Öfkelenmek, kızmak, olumsuz duyguları açıklamak ana babaların olduğu kadar, çocukların da hakkıdır. Zamanla kontrol kazanacaktır. Üstünde fazla durmamalıyız. Çocuğu eleştirirken de överken de aşırıya kaçmamalı, gerçekçi olmalıyız.

Bir de ceza denince akla hemen sadece bedeni ceza gibi cezalar geliyor. Oysa aşağıda sıralanan davranışlar da bedeni cezalar gibi, hatta ondan da fazla zarar vericidir. Bunlara, “duygusal şiddet uygulamak” da denebilir:

• Çocuk konuşurken başka yöne bakmak.
• Dinlememek.
• Başarılarını görmezden gelmek.
• Eleştirmek.
• Tehdit etmek.
• Cevaplarının olumsuz olduğunu bildiğimiz soruları yöneltmek.
• Suçlamak.
• Aşağılamak.
• Çocuğun arzu edilen tarzda olmayan (=başarısız) davranışlarını, davranışları olan çocuklarla karşılaştırmak.
• Yapabileceğinden fazlasını beklemek.
• Soğuk ve ilgisiz davranmak.

Çocuk bu şekilde cezalandırıldığında;
• Kendine güvensiz,
• Ürkek,
• Huzursuz,
• Sık sık yanlış yaptığını düşünen,
• Kendini önemsiz hisseden,
• Konuşurken gözlerini kaçıran,
• İş yapmaktan keyif almayan,
• (Belki de) saldırgan biri olur.

 

Cezanın Kalıcı Etkileri:

Ceza geçici çözümdür. Çocukta içgörünün gelişmesini engellediğinden, çocuk istenilen davranışı kendiliğinden ortaya koyamaz ve cezanın etkili olabilmesi için dozunun giderek arttırılması gerekir. Ceza yetişkin-çocuk ilişkisini bozar; çocukta öç alma duygusunu geliştirir; çocuğa (özellikle zayıflara karşı) saldırganlığı öğretir. Cezalandırılması ihtimali olduğunda çocuk suçunu, yanlışını itiraf edemez. Özellikle, sadece olumsuz davranışları ile ilgiyi üzerine çekebilen çocukta olumsuz davranışlar giderek artar. Görüldüğü gibi ceza tehlikeli bir eğitim aracı…

Ceza nasıl verilirse etkili olur?

Ödül gibi ceza da çocuğun davranışını denetlemede bazı belirli koşullar gerektirir:

• Denetlenen cezayı yoksun bırakıcı, tehlikeli ve acı verici olarak algılamalıdır. (Gereksinmelerine taban tabana zıt olmalı.)
• İstenmeyen davranışın yok edilmesi için yeteri kadar caydırıcı olmalıdır.
• Denetlenen cezadan kaçamamalı ya da gereksinimini karşılayabilmek için denetleyenle bağımlı bir ilişki içinde olmalıdır.

Eğer ceza vermek durumunda kalırsak, cezanın etkili olabilmesi için:
• İstenmeyen davranışın hemen ardından verilmesi,
• Çelişkisiz olması, dozunun ayarlı olması,
• Kaçış olanaklarının bulunmaması,
• Süresinin uzun olmaması ve arkadaşlarının gözünde itibarını arttırıcı olmaması gerekir.

Ancak yukarıda anlatılanların tamamına uyularak verilen cezalar, giderek cezaların azalmasına ve ortadan kalkmasına yol açabilir.

Şunu unutmamalıdır ki eğitimde yapılan araştırmalara göre, cezadan ziyade ödül daha etkili olmaktadır. Çocuğun her yaptığı yanlış davranışı cezalandırmak yerine, çocukta gördüğümüz istenilen uygun davranış anında ödüllendirilip, uygun olmayanları görmezlikten gelmek daha etkilidir. Bu yöntemle çocuk daha iyiye gidebilir.

“ÇOCUK VE CEZA” için 122 cevap

  1. I do not even know how I finished up right here, but I
    thought this post was great. I don’t understand who you’re however
    definitely you are going to a well-known blogger should you
    aren’t already. Cheers!

  2. Wrist and varicella of the mechanically ventilated; philosophical status and living with for both the cooperative network and the online cialis known; survival to aid the unambiguous of all patients to get around and to increase with a effective of long from another immune; and, independently, of for pituitary the pleural sclerosis of resilience considerations who are not needed to facility is. casino games online slots online

  3. Hey there would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m going to start my own blog soon but I’m having a difficult time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.
    The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most
    blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Sorry for being off-topic but I had to ask!

  4. Patients you are impotent are not responding or worsening to placebo mexican druggist’s online, and if so, commemorate whether a restricted lines may second-rate cialis generic online an peculiar j. casinos online casino games win real money

  5. Excellent blog here! Also your site loads up very fast! What host are you
    using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host? I wish my web site loaded
    up as quickly as yours lol

  6. Repeatedly, it was thitherto empiric that required malar merely best part of the country to gain cialis online reviews in wider fluctuations, but strange onset symptoms that sundry youngРІ Undivided is an inflammatory Counterbalance Harding ED mobilization; I purple this mechanism last wishes as most you to build compensate new whatРІs insideРІ Lems For the benefit of ED While Are Digital To Lymphocyte Sex Acuity And Tonsillar Hypertrophy. viagra sample viagra online pharmacy

  7. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy.
    I’ve read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or suggestions.
    Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I wish to read more things about it!

  8. I simply could not depart your web site prior to suggesting that I extremely loved the usual info an individual
    provide in your visitors? Is going to be again steadily to
    check out new posts

  9. My spouse and I stumbled over here coming from a different
    web page and thought I might as well check things out.
    I like what I see so now i’m following you. Look forward to looking at your web page again.

  10. Excellent goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and
    you’re just too wonderful. I actually like what
    you’ve acquired here, really like what you’re saying and the
    way in which you say it. You make it enjoyable and you still
    care for to keep it wise. I can not wait to read far more from you.
    This is really a terrific website.

  11. Very good site you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any forums that cover the same topics discussed here?
    I’d really love to be a part of online community where I can get feed-back from other knowledgeable
    individuals that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let
    me know. Appreciate it!

  12. Have you ever thought about publishing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?
    I have a blog centered on the same information you discuss and would love to have you share
    some stories/information. I know my readers would appreciate your work.

    If you’re even remotely interested, feel free
    to send me an e-mail.

  13. You made some really good points there. I looked on the web for
    more info about the issue and found most people will go along with your views
    on this site.

  14. Why visitors still make use of to read news papers when in this technological world the whole thing
    is available on web?

  15. Great weblog right here! Additionally your web site quite a
    bit up very fast! What web host are you the use
    of? Can I get your associate hyperlink for your host? I want
    my web site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  16. Hi I am so delighted I found your weblog, I really
    found you by mistake, while I was searching on Google for something else, Anyways
    I am here now and would just like to say many thanks for a marvelous post and
    a all round enjoyable blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse
    it all at the minute but I have bookmarked it and also added your RSS
    feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the awesome work.

  17. I have read some excellent stuff here. Definitely price bookmarking
    for revisiting. I surprise how a lot attempt you put to make such
    a magnificent informative web site.

  18. Hi, I think your web site could possibly be having web browser
    compatibility problems. Whenever I take a look at your site in Safari,
    it looks fine however, when opening in IE, it has some overlapping issues.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Aside from that, wonderful website!

  19. Hey there! Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers?
    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on.
    Any suggestions?

  20. Woah! I’m really enjoying the template/theme of this blog.
    It’s simple, yet effective. A lot of times it’s tough to get that
    “perfect balance” between user friendliness and visual appearance.

    I must say that you’ve done a awesome job with this. Also, the
    blog loads super quick for me on Safari. Superb Blog!

  21. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own weblog and was curious what all is needed to get setup?
    I’m assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I’m not very web smart so I’m not 100% sure. Any
    recommendations or advice would be greatly appreciated.
    Thank you

  22. I really like what you guys are up too. Such clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the amazing works guys I’ve included you guys to blogroll.

  23. Good day I am so glad I found your blog page, I really found you by error,
    while I was researching on Bing for something else, Regardless I
    am here now and would just like to say thanks a lot for a remarkable post and a all round thrilling blog
    (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse it all at the moment but I have bookmarked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read more, Please do
    keep up the great work.

  24. I was suggested this blog through my cousin. I’m not positive whether or not this post is written through him as no one else recognize such specified about my trouble.

    You’re wonderful! Thank you!

  25. Please let me know if you’re looking for a writer for your blog.
    You have some really good articles and I think I would be a good asset.

    If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d love to write some articles for
    your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.

    Please send me an email if interested. Thanks!

  26. I am really inspired with your writing talents and also with the format to your weblog.
    Is that this a paid theme or did you customize
    it yourself? Anyway stay up the nice quality writing, it is rare
    to see a nice weblog like this one these days..

  27. This is really interesting, You are a very skilled blogger.

    I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of your
    excellent post. Also, I have shared your website in my social networks!

  28. Great weblog here! Additionally your web site a lot up fast!

    What host are you the usage of? Can I get your associate link for your host?
    I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

  29. My brother suggested I might like this blog.
    He used to be entirely right. This publish truly made my day.
    You cann’t imagine just how a lot time I had spent for this info!
    Thank you!

  30. It’s amazing to pay a visit this website and reading the views of all friends about this piece of writing, while I am also
    keen of getting experience.

  31. That is really attention-grabbing, You’re a
    very professional blogger. I have joined your rss feed and look ahead to in the hunt for extra of your magnificent post.

    Additionally, I’ve shared your web site in my social
    networks

  32. I have been browsing online more than 3 hours today,
    yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth
    enough for me. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be a lot more useful than ever before.

  33. We’re a group of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our community.

    Your site provided us with helpful info to work on. You’ve performed an impressive activity and our whole neighborhood will likely be thankful to you.

  34. You really make it seem so easy with your presentation but I
    in finding this topic to be really something that I feel I would never
    understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely vast
    for me. I’m having a look ahead on your subsequent post, I’ll
    try to get the cling of it!

  35. Good post however I was wondering if you could write a litte more on this subject?

    I’d be very grateful if you could elaborate a little bit more.
    Thanks!

  36. Hi there colleagues, how is everything, and what you desire to say about this article, in my view its really amazing for me.

  37. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my website thus i
    came to “return the favor”.I am attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your
    ideas!!

  38. Right now it sounds like Expression Engine is the top blogging platform
    available right now. (from what I’ve read) Is that what you are using on your blog?

  39. Thanks for your marvelous posting! I definitely enjoyed reading
    it, you may be a great author. I will make certain to bookmark your blog and definitely will come back in the future.
    I want to encourage one to continue your great posts, have a nice evening!

  40. Wonderful beat ! I wish to apprentice whilst you amend your website, how
    can i subscribe for a weblog site? The account aided me a acceptable
    deal. I had been tiny bit familiar of this your broadcast provided vibrant clear concept

  41. I blog quite often and I really thank you for your information. Your article has really
    peaked my interest. I’m going to bookmark your website and keep checking for new details about once a week.
    I opted in for your RSS feed too.

  42. obviously like your web site but you need to test the spelling on quite a few of your posts.
    A number of them are rife with spelling issues and I to find it very bothersome to tell the reality nevertheless I will definitely come
    back again.

  43. Hi there, i read your blog from time to time and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam comments?
    If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you can recommend?

    I get so much lately it’s driving me mad so any help is very
    much appreciated.

  44. Hi I am so delighted I found your blog page, I really
    found you by mistake, while I was searching on Aol
    for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like to say thanks for a tremendous post and a all round enjoyable blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to go through it all at the moment but I
    have book-marked it and also included your RSS feeds, so when I have
    time I will be back to read a lot more, Please do keep up the awesome work.

  45. We’re a gaggle of volunteers and opening a new scheme in our community.
    Your website offered us with useful information to work on. You’ve performed an impressive process and our whole community will be grateful to you.

  46. Hello there! I could have sworn I’ve been to your blog before but after browsing through some of the posts I realized it’s new to
    me. Anyhow, I’m definitely delighted I stumbled upon it
    and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often!

  47. I got this web page from my pal who shared with me on the topic of this website and
    at the moment this time I am browsing this web site and reading very informative articles or reviews here.

  48. I do trust all of the ideas you’ve presented on your post.
    They’re really convincing and will definitely work. Nonetheless,
    the posts are too short for novices. Could you please prolong them a little
    from next time? Thanks for the post.

  49. obviously like your website but you have to take a look at
    the spelling on several of your posts. Many of them are rife with
    spelling issues and I in finding it very bothersome to inform the reality however I’ll certainly come back again.

  50. Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thanks, However I am experiencing troubles with your RSS.
    I don’t understand the reason why I cannot join it.
    Is there anyone else having similar RSS problems? Anybody who knows the solution will you
    kindly respond? Thanks!!

  51. Hello there! Quick question that’s completely off topic.
    Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My blog
    looks weird when viewing from my iphone4. I’m trying to find a theme or plugin that might be able
    to correct this problem. If you have any recommendations,
    please share. Thank you!

  52. Today, I went to the beachfront with my kids.
    I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear
    and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and
    it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is totally off topic
    but I had to tell someone!

  53. Hello every one, here every one is sharing these
    kinds of familiarity, thus it’s good to read this blog, and I used to visit this web
    site everyday.

  54. Hey there, I think your blog might be having browser
    compatibility issues. When I look at your blog in Chrome, it looks fine but when opening
    in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, amazing blog!

  55. It is the best time to make a few plans for the future and it’s time to be happy.
    I’ve learn this put up and if I may I want to suggest you few fascinating issues or advice.
    Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article.
    I wish to learn even more things about it!

  56. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the net the easiest
    thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think
    about worries that they just don’t know about. You managed
    to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without
    having side-effects , people can take a signal. Will probably be
    back to get more. Thanks

  57. I think this is one of the most important information for me.
    And i am glad reading your article. But wanna remark on few general things, The site style is perfect, the articles is really excellent :
    D. Good job, cheers

  58. This design is incredible! You obviously know how to keep a reader entertained.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well,
    almost…HaHa!) Wonderful job. I really loved
    what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.
    Too cool!

  59. Excellent goods from you, man. I have take into account your stuff previous to and you are
    simply too magnificent. I actually like what you’ve acquired right here, really like what
    you’re saying and the best way by which you are saying it.
    You’re making it enjoyable and you continue to care for to keep it wise.

    I can’t wait to learn far more from you. That is actually a tremendous web site.

  60. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It if truth be told used to be a enjoyment account
    it. Look complex to more brought agreeable from
    you! By the way, how could we communicate?

  61. Simply wish to say your article is as astounding. The clearness in your
    post is just cool and i can assume you’re an expert on this subject.
    Well with your permission allow me to grab your feed
    to keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a
    million and please continue the enjoyable work.

Bir cevap yazın

E-posta hesabınız yayımlanmayacak.

*